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A. New York City has a housing problem. Currently, it has 1.8 million one- and two-person households, and only one million studios and one-bedroom apartments. Theobvious solution seems to be to develop more small residential units.
B. In January, Bloomberg's office announced the winner of its 2012 competition todesign and build a residential tower of micro-units--apartments between 250 and370 square feet--on a city-owned site at East 27th street in Manhattan. Accordingto the Mayor's press release, the winning proposal, by the Brooklyn-based firmnARCHITECTS, was chosen for its innovative layout and building design, withnearly 10 foot ceilings and Juliet balconies that give residents "substantial light andair".
C. But as New York City's "micro-apartment" project inches closer to reality, expertswarn that micro-living may not be the urban panacea ( 灵丹妙药) we've been
waiting for. For some residents, the potential health risks and crowding challengesmight outweigh the benefits of affordable housing. And while the Bloombergadministration hails the tiny spaces as a "milestone for new housing models", criticsquestion whether relaxing zoning rules and experimenting with micro-design onpublic land will effectively address New York's apartment supply problem in the longrHn.
D."Sure, these micro-apartments may be fantastic for young professionals in their 20's,"says Dak Kopec, director of design for human health at Boston Architectural Collegeand author of Environmental Psychology for Design. "But they definitely can beunhealthy for older people, say in their 30's and 40's, who face different stress factorsthat can make tight living conditions a problem."
E. Home is supposed to be a safe haven, and a resident with a demanding job may feeltrapped in a claustrophobic ( 导致幽闭恐怖症的 ) apartment at night--forcedto choose between the physical crowding of furniture and belongings in his unit,and social crowding, caused by other residents, in the building's common spaces.
Research, Kopec says, has shown that crowding-related stress can increase rates ofdomestic violence and substance abuse.
F. For all of us, daily life is a sequence of events, he explains. But most people don'tlike adding extra steps to everyday tasks. Because micro-apartments are too small tohold basic furniture like a bed, table, and couch at the same time, residents must resettheir quarters throughout the day: folding down a Murphy bed ( 墨菲隐壁床) , orhanging up a dining table on the wall. What might seem novel at the beginning endsup including a lot of little inconveniences, just to go to sleep or make breakfast beforework. In this case, residents might eventually stop folding up their furniture every dayand the space will start feeling even more constrained.
G. Susan Saegert, professor of environmental psychology at the CUNY Graduate Centerand director of the Housing Environments Research Group, agrees that the micro-apartments will likely be a welcome choice for young New Yorkers who wouldprobably otherwise share cramped space with friends. But she warns that tiny livingconditions can be terrible for other residents--particularly if a couple or a parentand child squeeze into 300 square feet for the long term, no matter how well a unit isdesigned.
H. "I've studied children in crowded apartments and low-income housing a lot,"Saegert said, "and they can end up becoming withdrawn, and have trouble studyingand concentrating." In these situations, modern facilities--such as floor to ceilingwindows, extra storage and a public roof deck--won't compensate for a fundamentallack of privacy in a child's home every day.
I. She also doubts whether it's a valid public goal to develop smaller units on city land."In New York, property is just gold," she points out. "Isn't this something a developercould do in a Brooklyn neighborhood like DUMBO and make a lot of money?" Bythe same token, if micro-apartments are indeed the wave of the future, Saegert argues,they increase the "ground rent," or dollar per square foot that a developer earns. Soover time, New Yorkers may actually face more expensive housing, paying the sameamount to rent a studio in the neighborhood where they used to be able to afford aone-bedroom.
J. Beyond the economic impact of smaller spaces, our homes also serve an importantrole in communicating our values and goals, or what scientists call "identity claims."
We tend to feel happier and healthier when we can bring others to our space totelegraph who we are and what's important to us.
K. "When we think about micro-living, we have a tendency to focus on functional things,like is there enough room for the fridge," explained University of Texas psychologyprofessor Samuel Gosling, who studies the connection between people and theirpossessions. "But an apartment has to fill other psychological needs as well, such asself-expression and relaxation, which might not be as easily met in a highly confinedspace."
L. On the other hand, Eugenic L. Birch, professor of urban research and education andchair of the Graduate Group in City Planning at the University of Pennsylvania, saysthis certainly isn't the first time we've had this debate over micro-living. New Yorkhas grappled with the public health costs of crowded living conditions and minimumapartment standards throughout its history.
M. "Over time, New York City developers conceived of many ways to address theneed for affordable housing," said Birch. "They built slums in the 19th century thatreformers fought against. Other solutions have been boarding houses, shelters, andwhat came to be known as single room occupancy units."
N. Rolf Pendall, director of the Urban Institute's Metropolitan Housing and CommunitiesPolicy Center asks: Where would all these people be doing business and livingwithout the density? Would they be commuting longer distances or earning less,and is living farther from economic opportunities "better" for them? In that context,Pendall says he welcomes micro-apartments as long as they fit within the largerhousing ecology of the city, and don't ultimately displace other types of units forfamilies.
O. The problem is, there's often an unconformity between housing standards and actualhousing conditions. Countless New Yorkers illegally share apartments, and currentzoning rules can create poor living environments--dilapidated (旷费的,要崩塌的) kitchens or dark rooms with a window that opens onto a brick wall. A worst casescenario would yield hundreds of thousands of micro-apartments and poor conditions.
P. For this project, while New York may be taking a step backwards in terms of squarefootage, Eric Bunge, working at nARCHITECTS, the finn that created the winningmicro-apartment design, is firm that the city is taking a big step forward in terms ofactual living conditions. "The city sees this initiative as one mechanism in a set ofcomplex issues," Bunge says. "Nobody is claiming that micro-apartments will be asilver bullet."
Q. By his calculus, the East 27th street building does address concerns of mental andphysical well-being. For example, residents might be losing physical space, butthey're gaining access to a series of amenities, like a gym with floor-to-ceiling parkviews, a lobby with a public garden, and yes, a Juliet balcony. And for that, many citydwellers might happily trade away 75 square feet and a freestanding bed.

1.[选词填空]In the past, New York City developers thought about lots of ways to meet the need foraffordable housing.
    • 解题思路:题干意为,曩昔,纽约城的地产开发商们尝试了许多办法为人们供给买得起的住所。 依据题干中的关键词New York City developers和affordable housing可定位到M段。该段首句说到,长久以来,纽约的房地产开发商设想了许多种办法,为人们供给买得起的住所。由此可知,题所以对原文的同义转述,故选M。
    2.[选词填空]Countless New Yorkers unlawfully share apartments, and present zoning rules cancause poor living environments.
      • 解题思路:题干意为,很多的纽约人正在与人不合法合租,而且当时的分区规则会让住所的生活环境变得非常糟糕。依据题干中的关键词Countless New Yorkers,zoning rules和poor living environments可定位到O段。该段第二句说到,很多的纽约人正在不合法合租,而且当时的分区规则会让住所的生活环境变得非常糟糕。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选O。
      3.[选词填空]Experts warn that "micro-apartments" project won't solve our housing problem whileit slowly becomes reality in New York City.
        • 解题思路:题干意为,专家正告说,尽管微型公寓项目在纽约市渐渐变成现实,但它仍无法处理咱们的住所问题。依据题干中的关键词“micro-apartments”project和slowlybecomes reality可定位到C段。该段首句说到,可是,跟着纽约市“微型住所”项目的一步步执行,有关专家发出了正告——微型住所或许并不是咱们翘首以盼的处理城市问题的灵丹妙药。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选C。
        4.[选词填空]If micro-apartments become the trend of furore, they will push the "ground rent" up high.
          • 解题思路:题干意为,假如微型公寓将来成为潮流,它们或许会推高城市的地租。依据题干中的关键词thetrendoffuture和ground rent可定位到l段。该段第四句说到,同样地,假如微型公寓真的是未来的潮流的话,萨格特教授争论道,它们会使“土地租金”——或者说开发商从每平方英尺土地上获取的赢利上涨。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选I。
          5.[选词填空]If micro-apartments don't go against the city's large housing ecology or replace othertypes of housing, Pendall welcomes them.
            • 解题思路:题干意为,假如微型公寓不违反城市的住所生态大布景或替代其他住所类型,他潘德尔乐见其成。依据题干中的关键词micro-apartments,the city’s large housingecology和Pendall可定位到N段。该段末句说到,在这种情况下,潘德尔表明,只需微型公寓契合城市住所生态大布景,而且不会终究替代其他家庭单位类型,他会对此表明欢迎。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选N。
            6.[选词填空]Modern things, like floor to ceiling windows and extra storage, won't make up thelack of privacy in a house with children.
              • 解题思路:题干意为,比方落地窗和额定的贮存空间这些现代事物,都无法弥补那些有孩子的家庭的隐私缺失。依据题干中的关键词floor to ceiling windows,extra storage和lack of privacy可定位到H段。该段第二句说到,在这种情况下,即使是落地窗、额定贮存空问和开放性的露台这样的现代设备也无法弥补有孩子的家庭每天个人隐私的根本性缺失。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选H。
              7.[选词填空]Bunge thinks that the East 27th street building can benefit people's mental andphysical health.
                • 解题思路:题干意为,邦奇以为东27街的修建对人的心思和身体健康有利。依据题干中的关键词Bunge和the East 27th street能够定位到Q段。该段首句中指出,在邦奇看来,东27街的住所大楼的确能够处理人们的心思和生理健康问题。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选Q。
                8.[选词填空]An apartment should be functional, but it also should satisfy one's psychological needs.
                  • 解题思路:题干意为,公寓应该具有功能性,可是它也应该能够满意人的心思需求。依据题干中的关键词functional和satisfy one’s psychological needs可定位到K段。该段中引证塞缪尔·戈斯林的话指出,当咱们想到微型住所时,咱们往往会重视一些功能性的事物,可是公寓有必要还能满意其他心思上的需求,比方自我表达需求和休闲放松需求。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选K。
                  9.[选词填空]Regardless of the economic influence of small spaces, our houses play a role indisplaying our values and aims, which is called "identity claims".
                    • 解题思路:题干意为,放下狭小空间带来的经济好处不说,住地点展现咱们的价值观和方针,即所谓的“身份宣示”上有很大效果。依据题干中的关键词our values and aims和identity claims可定位到J段。该段首句说到,除了小型公寓所带来的经济影响外,咱们的房子也在传达咱们的价值观和人生方针中发挥重要效果,也便是科学家们所说的“身份宣示”。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选J。
                    10.[选词填空]Most people who live in micro-apartments may feel more and more uncomfortable ifthey stop folding up their furniture every day.
                      • 解题思路:题干意为,大多数住在微型公寓的人假如中止每天收起家具,他们会感觉越来越不舒适。依据题干中的关键词more uncomfortable和folding up their furniture定位到F段。 该段第二句中说到,大多数人都不喜爱在日常的使命中增加额定的作业。随后在该段最终一句中指出,在这种情况下,住户们最终或许不会再每天拾掇起他们的家具了,这样一来,窄小的空间给人的感觉会愈加不适。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故选F。
                      • 参考答案:M,O,C,I,N,H,Q,K,J,F