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  • 试题题型【阅览了解 Section C】
    The intimate relationship between speakers and their speech has led some scholars to suggest that language determines the view we have of the world around us. Different languages segment natural phenomena differently. We name seven colors in the rainbow: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red in this order or the reverse. Speakers of other languages may see only four, as did Turkish before our system was introduced, or even as few as two, roughly the lighter shades versus the darker. There is nothing in nature to demonstrate how we should chop up the spectrum of the rainbow, which is made up of a scale of various wavelengths. But when we have learned a given language, we distinguish the shades it designates, both in the rainbow and elsewhere. Many students of language assume from such a situation and other similar situations that language determines much of the shapes and patterns we see in the world around us, that it directs our concepts and actions. 
    Changes in the choice of language, then, might modify behavior. Today gasoline tracks are generally labeled  "flammable (易燃的)". The in- prefix was often taken as equivalent, to that of words like"inanimate" and"inaccurate", where in- means  "not". It is actually the in- of words like"intense" and,  "inflect", where it strengthens the meaning. The word "inflammable", then, means "highly flammable". The faulty interpretation of language, however, determined the attitudes of many speakers, who thereupon adjusted their behavior in relation to the language. Prudent truck owners have taken notice and changed the warning to "flammable". 
    Such observations led Whorf to a concern with deeper patterns of language, such as the use of tenses in the languages of Europe. Tense is the linguistic expression of time. English and other European languages generally require their speakers to identify the time of an event, whether present: It's raining; past: It rained; or future: It will rain. By contrast, many languages, such as the Hopi language of New Mexico, lack expression for tense. Nor do such languages objectify (使具体化.time. In Hopi one cannot count day, minutes, years as though they were objects like stones or bottles. Everyday expressions like "I'11 wait two days" or  "Three years went by" are impossible in Hopi. 
    Comparing such languages Whorf proposed that our use of tense, "our objectified view of time is favorable to historicity ( 史实性 .and to everything connected with the keeping of records. " That is to say, because of the patterns for referring to time in English and other languages, their speakers maintain records and emphasize bookkeeping, accounting, and the like. Further, we are interested in calendars, clocks, and time graphs as well as in history and archaeology (考古学). In accordance with it one's conceptions of the world is relative to the language one learns. 
    While the relativity hypothesis has attracted considerable attention, it has never been experimentally demonstrated to the valid. A large scale attempt to test the outlook of Hopi-speaking children versus English-speaking children turned out to be inconclusive ( 不确认性). It remains a task of future scholars to determine whether the hypothesis is valid and also whether one should assume a weak or strong position with regard to it. Clearly we are deeply tied to our native language. But whether it regulates our perceptions or our view of the world is still an open question. 
1.[单选题]The purpose of the experiment which compares Hopi and English is to
  • A.prove that people are deeply influenced by their native language
  • B.find out whether language is closely related to the view of the word
  • C.support the idea that language is closely related to the outlook of the world
  • D.see how superior English-speaking children are in the outlook of the world
  • 解题思路:这两句指出: “虽然‘言语相对论’假说引起了相当大的重视,却从未有试验成果证明它是有依据的。有人针对讲霍皮语的孩子及讲英语的孩子的国际观做了许多的比照测验,却没有得到确认的成果。”因而该试验的意图是想探明言语与国际观之间是否有密切联络。故B项符合辞意,为正确答案。文中并未说到该试验便是要证明言语与国际观之间的密切联络,故C项可扫除。该试验的中心是言语与国际观,A项并不是该试验的中心地点,可扫除。文中也没有提及说不同言语的孩子的国际观的好坏问题,也扫除D。
2.[单选题] According to some language students, what is the consequence of learning a new language?
  • A.We can learn different expressions of the same thing.
  • B.It can influence our concepts and actions.
  • C.It contributes to a creation of new language systems.
  • D.It becomes possible to distinguish differences between languages.
  • 解题思路:“许多学言语的学生从这种状况及其他类似状况中臆断,咱们在周边国际所见的大部分形状及图画都是由言语决议的,而这引导了咱们的观念及行为。”由此可见,学习言语的学生以为言语会影响咱们的国际观和行为,故B项符合辞意,为正确答案。
3.[单选题]The case of the label "flammable" proves that
  • A.language can indeed affect our choices of actions
  • B.prefixes if used incorrectly may lead to disaster
  • C.some truck drivers are potential experts of languages
  • D.misunderstanding can happen even among workers
  • 解题思路:全段都是在阐明有关flammable标识的问题。本段以flammable这一单词为例,详细剖析了言语对人的行为的影响,最终在该段倒数第二句得出定论,即 “但是,关于言语的过错解读决议了许多说话者的情绪,他们随即针对言语调整自己的行为”。由此可推断,该事例剖析证明言语的确可影响咱们对行为的挑选。A项符合辞意,故为答案。
4.[单选题]Based on Whorf's conclusion, the author thinks that different languages
  • A.result from different ideas on time and space
  • B.result in different accounting systems
  • C.have different approaches to history recording
  • D.lead to different views towards the world
  • 解题思路:第三、四段均说到沃尔夫对言语的研讨。第四段接受第三段,首要引证Whorf的定论,然后在此基础上进行剖析,在最终一句说: “与此相一致的是,人的国际观是与人所学的言语相关的。”由此可见,不同的言语会导致不同的国际观,故D项为正确答案。其他三项均与辞意有误差,可扫除。
5.[单选题]It can be inferred that the use of tense
  • A.is completely unnecessary in some local languages
  • B.converts abstract ideas into objective things
  • C.helps avoid certain ambiguity in concepts or ideas
  • D.makes it possible to modernize Hopi language
  • 解题思路:本段将有时态的言语与没有时态表现形式的言语比照,最终两句指出在没有时态表现形式的言语(如霍皮语)中 “人无法把天数、分钟数或年份当成石头或瓶子这类的物体核算。像‘我会等两天’或‘三年过去了’这样的日常表达在霍皮语里是不可能呈现的”。由此可估测,像霍皮语这样没有时刻概念的言语自然会形成概念等方面的含糊性,而借助于时态则能防止这种含糊性,故C项符合辞意,为正确答案。
  • 参考答案:D,B,A,D,C